This was the golden age of the Old Kingdom and the Egyptian civilization as a whole. This period saw the biggest advancement in architecture and the appearance of the true pyramids in the complete form so it was called the pyramids builders’ age. The kings of this dynasty improved the economy, trade, and mining in addition to military expansion against Libian and Nubian tribes. Arts, culture and religious thinking flourished as a result of the prosperity and stability.
The dynasty starts with king Snefru during whose reign the tomb shape changed from the mastaba and step pyramid shape to the true pyramid shape. He built two pyramids in Dahshur and a third in Meidum. He was succeeded by the great king Khufu whose great pyramid still puzzles scholars until now. Khufu was followed by Djedefre who moved his pyramid to Abu Rawash area. He was succeeded by Khafre and his son Menkaure who went back to the Giza plateau and build their pyramids. Khafre built the famous statue of great sphinx, which represents a recumbent lion with a human head. The fourth dynasty included several queens that had a prominent role in the stability of the county such as HetepHeres, Snefru’s wife; Merit It Es, Khufu’s wife; and Meresankh II, Khafra’s wife.